Cohen, Chester. Shtetl Finder. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1989. (TE)
Lists 1,200 Jewish communities in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Pale of Settlement of Russia, and Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Galicia and Bukovina.
Mokotoff, Gary and Sack, Sallyann Amdur. Where Once We Walked: A Guide to the Jewish Communities Destroyed in the Holocaust. Rev. ed.
Bergenfield: NJ, Avotaynu, 2002. (TE, JHC)
Identifies 23,500 towns in Central and Eastern Europe where Jews lived before the Holocaust with alternate names, latitude/longitude, and Jewish population before the Holocaust.
Spector, Shmuel. The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2001. 3 vols. (TE, JHC)
An alphabetical listing of Jewish communities that thrived during the early part of the 20th century and synopsis of its history and people.